Wednesday, May 24, 2006

Marie Curie

Maria Skłodowska Curie Nobel Prize Diploma
Marie Curie 7 noyabr 1867-ci ilde Polşanın Varşava şeherinde anadan oldu (evvel adı Maria Skłodowska idi). Özünden böyük bir bacısı (Brenya) var idi. O müellim ailesinde dünyaya gelmişdi. Marie Curie eslen polşalı idi. Genclik illerinde Varşava Rus İmperiyasının hakimiyyeti altında idi. Siyasi aktivliyi onu bu veziyyetde Varşavadan ayrılmağa yöneldirdi. İlk olaraq Cracow-a geden Maria orada istediyi kimi tehsil ala bilmeyeceyini anladı . Ailesinin de maddi yardımının az olması sebebi ile Paris Sorbonne-de tibb tehsili alan bacısı Brenyaya tehsilinde kömek etmek qerarına geldi. Bacısı ise evezinde ona riyaziyyat ve fizikadan tehsil almağına kömek edecekdi. 1891-ci ilde Parise bacısının yanına getdi. Kiçik bir evde , ağır bir şerait altında yaşayarken tehsiline davam etdi. İki il içerisinde sinifinin birincisi olaraq fizik derecesi aldı. 1894-cü ilde ikinci derecesi olan riyaziyyatı da bitirdi. Sonrakı meqsedi ise müellimlik diplomu alıb Varşavaya dönmek idi. 1894-cü ilde qardaşı Jacques ile piezoelektriki keşf eden Pierre Curie ile tanış oldu. O zamanlar Pierre Curie 35 yaşında idi. Maria ve Pierre birlikde elmi çalışmalarla meşğul olurdular , bununla beraber getdikce bir-birine daha da bağlanmışdılar. 1895-ci ilin iyul ayında Maria ve Pierre evlendiler. Bu tarixden etibaren Maria Skłodowska adını Maria Curie adını aldı. 1986-cı ilde müellimlik diplomunu aldıqdan sonra 1897-ci ilde Henri Becquerel terefinden elan edilmiş uran duzlarının yaydığı, sonralar radioaktivlik olaraq adlandırılan “şüa” üzerinde etraflı araşdırmalara başladı. Lakin ilk qızı İrene-in 1897-ci ilde sentyabr ayında dünyaya gelmesi çalışmalarına ara vermesine sebeb oldu. Sonradan 1898-illerin evvelinden çalışmalarına davam etdi. 1903-cü ilde Marie doktorluq derecesini aldı ve bu Fransada ilk qadın idi ki, bu dereceni alırdı. Hemin il heyat yoldaşı ve Becquerel ile paylaşdığı fizika sahesinde Nobel mükaftı aldı ve tarixde ilk Nibel mükafatı alan qadın oldu. 19 aprel 1906-cı ilde Pierre Curie bir at arabasının altında qalaraq öz heyatını itirdi.İki uşağı ile dul qalan Marie Sorbonne-de müllimlik vezifesine keçdi ve 1908-ci ilde Sorbonne-de ilk qadın professor oldu.1911-ci ilde radium ve polonium-u kefş etdiyine göre kimya sahesinde Nobel mükafatına layiq görüldü. Belelikle iki defe Nobel mükafatı alan ilk insan oldu. Ancaq bezi menbelerin melumatımna göre ikinci defe buna mükafatın verilme sebebi yoldaşını itirmesi ve ağır şeraitde yaşaması olub. 1934-cü ilde Savoy şeherinde qan xerçenginden vefat etdi. Xesteliyinin sebebi hedden artıq radioaktiv şüalanmaya meruz qalması olub. Belelikle ona “Elm üçün ölen qadın” deyilir.
in english
Marie Curie
Marie Curie (Polish Maria Skłodowska-Curie, November 7, 1867 – July 4, 1934) was a Polish chemist, pioneer in the early field of radiology and a two-time Nobel laureate. She also became the first woman appointed to teach at the Sorbonne. She was ethnic Polish, born in Warsaw, and spent her early years there, but in 1891 at age 24, moved to France to study science in Paris. She obtained all her higher degrees and conducted her scientific career there, and became a naturalized French citizen. She founded the Curie Institutes in Paris and in Warsaw.
Born in Warsaw, Poland, then a part of the Russian Empire, her early years were sad ones, marked by the death of her sister from typhus and, four years later, her mother. She was noted to have an amazing memory and a diligent work ethic, neglecting even food and sleep while studying. After graduating from high school, she suffered a mental breakdown for a year. Due to her gender and Russian anti-Polish reprisals following the January Uprising, she was not allowed admission into any universities so she worked as a governess for several years. Eventually, with the monetary assistance of her elder sister Bronia, she moved to Paris and studied chemistry and physics at the Sorbonne, where she became the first woman to teach there.
At the Sorbonne she met and married another instructor, Pierre Curie. Together they studied radioactive materials, particularly the uranium pitchblende ore, which had the curious property of being more radioactive than the uranium extracted from it. By 1898 they deduced a logical explanation: that the pitchblende contained traces of some unknown radioactive component which was far more radioactive than uranium; thus on December 26th Marie Curie announced the existence of this new substance.
Over several years of unceasing labour they refined several tons of pitchblende, progressively concentrating the radioactive components, and eventually isolated initially the chloride salts (refining radium chloride on April 20, 1902) and then two new chemical elements. The first they named polonium after Marie's native country, and the other was named radium from its intense radioactivity. Maria Skłodowska Curie Nobel Prize Diploma
In 1903 she became the first woman in France to complete her doctorate.
Together with Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel, she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, 1903: "in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel". She was the first woman to be awarded a Nobel Prize. Eight years later, she received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1911 "in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element". In an unusual move, Curie intentionally did not patent the radium isolation process, instead leaving it open so the scientific community could research unhindered. Just one month after accepting her 1911 Nobel Prize, Marie was hospitalized with depression and kidney trouble.
She was the first person to win or share two Nobel Prizes. She is one of only two people who has been awarded a Nobel Prize in two different fields, the other being Linus Pauling. As of October 2005, she remains the only woman to win two Nobel prizes.
After her husband's death, she supposedly had an affair with physicist Paul Langevin, a married man who had left his wife, which resulted in a press scandal, exacerbated by her academic opponents in order to damage her credibility. Despite her fame as an honored scientist working for France, the public's attitude to the scandal tended towards xenophobia — she was a foreigner, from an unknown land (Poland was still referred to as a geographical area, under the Russian Tsar), an area known to have a significant Jewish population (Marie was an atheist, raised as a Catholic, even born in a gentry family [ Dołęga-Sklodowski], but that didn't seem to matter). France at the time was still reeling from the effects of the Dreyfus affair etc, so the scandal's effect on the public was all the more acute. It is a strange coincidence that Paul's grandson Michel later married her granddaughter Hélène Langevin-Joliot.
During World War I, she pushed for the use of mobile radiography units for the treatment of wounded soldiers. These units were powered using tubes of radium emanation, a colorless, radioactive gas given off by radium, later to be identified as radon. Marie personally provided the tubes, derived from the radium she purified. Promptly after the war started, she donated her and her husband's gold Nobel Prize Medals for the war effort.
In 1921, she toured the United States, where she was welcomed triumphantly, to raise funds for research on radium.
In her later years, she was disappointed by the myriad physicians and makers of cosmetics who used radioactive material without precautions.
Her death near Sallanches in 1934 was from aplastic anemia, almost certainly due to her massive exposure to radiation in her work, much of which was carried out in a shed with no proper safety measures being taken, as the damaging effects of hard radiation were not generally understood at that time. She was known to carry test tubes full of radioactive isotopes in her pocket, and to store them in her desk drawer, resulting in massive exposure to radiation. She was known to remark on the pretty blue-green light the metals gave off in the dark. Historical 20 000 złoty banknote of Poland with face of Maria Skłodowska Curie
Her eldest daughter, Irène Joliot-Curie, won a Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1935.


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